Available in the Microsoft Store – PowerShell Preview

Yes! If you haven’t noticed by now, PowerShell Preview is available for download from the Microsoft Store.
Just do a search for “PowerShell

It just takes less than a minute to install.

One thing you’ll miss from installing Powershell Preview using the MSI installation! That is, setting the additional options.

After the installation from the Microsoft Store, the PowerShell Preview application settings can be found under the Windows 10 Settings “Apps & features” section.

Then, click on the “Advanced options” to see additional information or make any changes to the application.

Now, the next time there’s an update to the PowerShell Preview, Windows 10 will take care of it automatically.

Happy PowerShelling!

Updating your .NET Tools components

Have you installed any of the .NET Tools? Such as “.NET Interactive” and “PowerShell Global“, then you’ll need to remember, to update these tools manually.

These tools give you the ability to use create Jupyter Notebook using Python Kernel but also with C#, F#, and PowerShell 7 kernels.

Check Current Version

First, need to list which .NET Tools are currently installed by using the following command:

dotnet tool list --global

In this sample, I opened a PowerShell 7 console and executed the command.

Manual Update

To update the tools, use the “dotnet tool …” command as follows:

1. To update the “Microsoft .NET Interactive” tool to the latest version:

dotnet tool update -g --add-source "https://dotnet.myget.org/F/dotnet-try/api/v3/index.json" Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

Completion message: (As of 07/30/2020, 16:20 PM)

Tool ‘microsoft.dotnet-interactive’ was successfully updated from version ‘1.0.136102’ to version ‘1.0.137901’.

2. To update PowerShell Global tool to the latest version:

dotnet tool update --global PowerShell

Completion message: (As of 07/30/2020, 16:20 PM)
Tool ‘powershell’ was successfully updated from version ‘7.0.2’ to version ‘7.0.3’.

*Note: If you have installed Anaconda, a manual update will be needed.

Keep in mind, these tools are not managed by Windows Update. So, you need to periodically run the update yourself.

This also applies to WSL 2 (Windows Subsystem for Linux).

More Information

WSL 2 – PowerShell Update-Help cmdlet is not working

Just recently I discovered, when executing the Update-Help cmdlet in WSL 2, that it doesn’t do anything.

Behavior: Run with no progress bar and no error messages at the end of the process. 

I have reported in the PowerShell Github repository and it will be addressed to the proper product group. This is on Windows 10 Version 2004, including Windows 10 Insider edition.

There are two workarounds to this issue:

Workaround #1

The workaround is shown below, thanks to Aditya Patwardhan (Microsoft PowerShell Developer) who provide the hint.

There are two Linux Bash environment variables that need to be updated: LANG and LC_ALL.

Check the current values using the echo command and, in my case, it shows:

## Current values:
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LANG
C.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LC_ALL
-EMPTY-
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$

Use the following “export” commands to change their values to be “en_US.UTF-8“:

(base) maxt@sapien01:~$
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ export LC_ALL='en_US.UTF-8'
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ export LANG='en_US.UTF-8'
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LC_ALL
en_US.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$ echo $LANG
en_US.UTF-8
(base) maxt@sapien01:~$

This will fix the issue temporarily during your WSL session, and the Update-Help will work properly.

For now, it may be needed to add these “export …” lines to the “~/.bashrc” file until the fix is available.

Workaround #2

Simply use the “Update-Help” specifying the UIculture:

Update-Help -uiculture en-us

That’s it!!

Keep PowerShelling!

Creating the PowerShell User Profile in Linux

In WSL, as on any Linux distribution, there’s no PowerShell User Profile file(“Microsoft.PowerShell_Profile.ps1“). So, it needs to be created manually.

Creating the profile folder

This profile is stored in the user home configuration folder “~/.config/powershell” folder.

But, the “powershell” folder doesn’t exist, it needs to be created in the configuration folder:

From the bash prompt, follow these steps:

1. Make sure you are in the user home folder:

pwd
cd /home/yourUserFolder

2. Verify the PowerShell folder doesn’t exist:

ls ~/.config

3. Change to the configuration folder:

cd ~/.config

3. Create the “powershell” folder, and assign permissions:

cd ~/.config
mkdir powershell
chmod 755
ll

Creating Microsoft.PowerShell_profile file

1. Using your Linux editor, create the Microsoft.PowerShell_Profile.ps1 file, and add code to the file: (Below using “vim” editor)

sudo vim /home/yourUserFolder/.config/powershell/Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1
-> Write-Host "Welcome to PowerShell in Linux" -foreground 'Yellow';
-> Import-Module Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters
-> Import-UnixCompleters
-> Write-Host "UnixCompleters is loaded!" -foreground 'Yellow';

5. When done, save changes and exit “vim’ editor by typing:

:wq

Testing the PowerShell Profile

Open PowerShell and the “Welcome to PowerShell in Linux” with any other text will be displayed. At the same time, anything else in the profile will be executed.

Now, you can add more commands to the file when needed.

Keep on PowerShelling!

Getting Started – UnixCompleters Module for PowerShell in Linux

Yes! This module has been around for a while and it’s a great helper for completing bash commands in PowerShell.

Get it from the PowerShell Gallery: Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters

Installing the module

To install the UnixCompleted module manually execute the following command:

Install-Module -Name Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters

This module includes the following cmdlets:

Import-UnixCompleters
Remove-UnixCompleters
Set-UnixCompleter

Then, import the module by typing:

Import-Module Microsoft.PowerShell.UnixCompleters

Follow by running the cmdlet “Import-UnixCompleters” to load the module:

Import-UnixCompleters

Now, let’s use the ‘df‘ Linux command, which displays the amount of disk space available, to test this module:

df --

After typing the double-dash, press the tab key twice. The list of parameters will show at the bottom of the command.

Implementation

You can have this module to be loaded from your “PowerShell User Profile” which should be located in the user’s home configuration folder: /home/username/.config/powershell/Microsoft.PowerShell_profile.ps1. Remember! The “PowerShell User Profile” needs to be created manually.

Keep PowerShelling!!

Streamlining SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) In PowerShell 7 (Revised)

It’s been over two years since I touch this topic, so here’s an updated post about using SQL Server Management Object (SMO) on the latest PowerShell Version 7.

Here’s 411 on what’s out there!

For the most part, nowadays you can use SMO to  connect:

1. Windows to Linux.
2. Linux to Windows.
3. Windows to Linux Containers.
4. Linux to Linux Containers.
5. Windows to Windows Containers.
6. WSL to Linux Containers or Windows.

And, of course, will include cloud technologies.

Now, we have to extend our skills thanks to Docker Container.

*Note: Any connection issues connecting from Linux to Windows, can be solved by creating the inbound rule for Linux in Windows Firewall.

Ways to use SMO

There are two ways you could use SMO in PowerShell 7 (cross-platform):

1. Installing the SMO NuGet packages, two packages are requiered:
a. Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects Version 150.18208.0 (as of 03/23/2020)
b. Microsoft.Data.SqlClient Version 1.1.1 (recommended)

2. Installing the PowerShell Module: SqlServer Version 21.1.18221 (as of 03/23/2020)

Keep in mind, once the packages and/or modules are installed, you need to update them manually.

Working with SMO NuGet Packages

To install the Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects package. You first need to verify that Nuget Package Management is registered in PowerShell 7. Execute the following code will do the task of registration:

function Verify-NugetRegistered
{
[CmdletBinding()]
Param ()
# Microsoft provided code: Test Auto sAVCE
# Register NuGet package source, if needed
# The package source may not be available on some systems (e.g. Linux/Windows)
if (-not (Get-PackageSource | Where-Object{ $_.Name -eq 'Nuget' }))
{
Register-PackageSource -Name Nuget -ProviderName NuGet -Location https://www.nuget.org/api/v2
}
else
{
Write-Host "NuGet Already Exist! No Need to install." -ForegroundColor Yellow;
};
}; Verify-NugetRegistered;

Now, here’s the tricky part. There’s a known issue when executing the Install-Package cmdlet which will fail to install the package.

The workaround is to download the Nuget.exe CLI and place the executable in the following folder: “C:\Program Files\PackageManagement\NuGet\Packages.”

This is the PowerShell default path for storing Packages, and it may not exist in the beginning. So you may need to manually create the folders.

To install the SMO packages needed, execute the following command in PowerShell 7 prompt as an Admin:

cd 'C:\Program Files\PackageManagement\NuGet\Packages\'
./nuget install Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects -version 150.18208.0
Pause
./nuget install Microsoft.Data.SqlClient -version 1.1.1
Pause

Notice, I included the versions of the packages as of 3/23/2020. These SMO packages will support SQL Server 2019 or older, but keeping in mind the older the SQL Server version the latest features will not apply.

Also, these packages doesn’t contain any PowerShell cmdlets, they are meant for developing solution from scratch. For example, below I’m creating an SMO script to connect to a SQL Server providing my SQL authentication, query to get the SQL Server engine version, and manipulate the results from the script.

## - PowerShell 7 loading .NET Core netstandard 2.0 library SMO dll's:
$smopath = Join-Path ((Get-Package Microsoft.SqlServer.SqlManagementObjects).Source `
| Split-Path) (Join-Path lib netstandard2.0);

Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.Smo.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.ConnectionInfo.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.SmoExtended.dll);
Add-Type -Path (Join-Path $smopath Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Sdk.Sfc.dll);

## - Prepare login credentials:
$SQLServerInstanceName = 'sapien01,1449';
$SQLUserName = 'sa'; $SqlPwd = '$SqlPwd01!';

## - Prepare connection to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = `
new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($SQLServerInstanceName, $SQLUserName, $SqlPwd);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## - Sample T-SQL Queries:
$SqlQuery = 'Select @@Version as FullVersion';

## - Execute T-SQL Query:
[array]$result = $SQLSrvObj.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($SqlQuery);
$GetVersion = $result.tables.Rows;
$GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0];

## - SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, `
@{ label = 'FullVersion'; Expression = { $GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0]; } }, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

The best thing! This Package is supported cross-platform so you can execute the script on any OS.

The beauty of coding with SMO is that everything is documented. Just check the Microsoft Documentation “SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) Programming Guide“.

Working with SqlServer Module

Now, using the SQL Server Module in PowerShell 7 is makes it a bit simple to install. And, it’s supported cross-platform.

Just execute the following command as an Admin:

Install-Module -Name SqlServer -AllowClobber

The latest version contains a total of 66 commands you can use to manage your SQL Server engine.

Now, besides having all of these commands available, in the future, you may have the need to create custom functions.

Here’s the variation of the previous SMO script sample:

## - Import the SqlServer module which it loads all needed SMO assemblies:
Import-Module SqlServer

## - Prepare login credentials:
$SQLServerInstanceName = 'sapien01,1449';
$SQLUserName = 'sa'; $SqlPwd = '$SqlPwd01!';

## - Prepare connection to SQL Server:
$SQLSrvConn = `
new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Common.SqlConnectionInfo($SQLServerInstanceName, $SQLUserName, $SqlPwd);
$SQLSrvObj = new-object Microsoft.SqlServer.Management.Smo.Server($SQLSrvConn);

## - Sample T-SQL Queries:
$SqlQuery = 'Select @@Version as FullVersion';

## - Execute T-SQL Query:
[array]$result = $SQLSrvObj.Databases['master'].ExecuteWithResults($SqlQuery);
$GetVersion = $result.tables.Rows;
$GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0];

## - SMO Get SQL Server Info:
$SQLSrvObj.Information `
| Select-Object parent, platform, `
@{ label = 'FullVersion'; Expression = { $GetVersion.FullVersion.Split(' - ')[0]; } }, `
OSVersion, Edition, version, HostPlatform, HostDistribution `
| Format-List;

The differences is quite simple. All SMO assemblies are previously loaded when you import the SqlServer module. So, you don’t have to worry about including the assemblies in the code. Make sure to check all of the commands available that can help you manage the SQL Server.

Additional Tools Available

Now, don’t forget to check other SQL Server community tools that are available, such as:
1. DBATools – SQL SMO PowerShell.
2. MSSql-Scripter – Python-based tool.
3. Mssql-cli – Python-based tool.

And, don’t forget to check out .NET Interactive which brings Jupyter Notebook with PowerShell kernel.

If you want to try .NET Notebook, I suggest to first install Anaconda (Python 3.7) which makes it simple to use in Windows.

If you want to experiment with .NET Notebook without installing anything in your system, then try MyBinder. This is a web-based .NET Notebook that’s run from a container.

Unfortunately, in this scenario, only the PowerShell 7 core modules are available. But at least you will be able to learn the essentials of .NET Notebook.

Go ahead and start using this Amazing technology!

PowerShell 7 GA is Here!

Finally is here, PowerShell 7 GA (Generally Available) is available for download for Windows, Linux, and macOS. Go and get it!

Installation

I suggest to manually uninstall all previous PowerShell versions and remove all existing folders that will be left behind under the “C:\Program Files\PowerShell” folder. This will guarantee a clean installation of PowerShell 7 GA.

This version will replace any previous GA version of PowerShell. In other words, if you already had PowerShell v6.2.4 installed, it will be replaced with PowerShell v7.0. This is by-designed!

You can find more information about PowerShell 7 GA in the following links:

Update your PowerShell Notebook

Also, check out .NET Interactive/PowerShell Notebook, as it has been updated to support the PowerShell 7 Kernel.

If you have previously installed .NET Interactive, to get the latest PowerShell Kernel, run the following command:

dotnet tool update -g --add-source "https://dotnet.myget.org/F/dotnet-try/api/v3/index.json" Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

For more information here, .NET Interactive/PowerShell Notebook.

Wait, there’s more!

Things are getting better! Check out the preview of the ConsoleGuiTools module for PowerShell 7 but, for now, only available for Linux and macOS.

It’s never too late to learn PowerShell!

Getting ready for PowerShell .NET Notebook

The latest release of .NET Interactive Preview 2 (February 6), which includes .NET Notebook for PowerShell. Remember, this is a .NET Core component that is available cross-platform.

This is great! You can start using notebook file and share it across many systems, both Windows and Linux Operating Systems.

Check out Microsoft blog post on “Public Preview of PowerShell Support in Jupyter Notebooks.”

Before you continue, I suggest to get Anaconda 2019.10 (v4.8.1) installed in your system.

Installing .NET Interactive in Ubuntu

In Windows, just takes a few steps to set it up. For Linux, it takes a few extra steps but still is quick enough to get you started.

For Windows, follow the instructions found at the .NET Interactive page in Github.

For Linux, for Ubuntu 18.04, follow the blog post “Ubuntu 18.04 Package Manager – Install .NET Core“.

Basically, in either operating systems, you install:

  • Install the .NET Core SDK
  • Install the ASP.NET Core runtime
  • Install the .NET Core runtime

After these components are installed, proceed to install .NET Interactive Tools, which will include PowerShell support in Jupyter Notebook.

1. Install the .NET Interactive Global tools with this simple command:

$ dotnet tool install --global Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

2. Then install .NET Interactive “Jupyter” component with the following command:

$ dotnet interactive jupyter install

At this point, in Ubuntu, you will encounter the following known error: (see image)

To resolve the issue, use the text editor to open the ~/.bashrc file to add the path to .NET Tools folder:

$ sudo vim ~/.bashrc
## - Add path to .NET Tools:
export PATH=$PATH:~/.dotnet/tools
:wq
$ source ~/.bashrc

Now, we rerun the command, and this time it will complete without any errors:

$ dotnet interactive jupyter install

To verify that all Jupyter kernel was installed, execute the following command:

$ jupyter kernelspec list

Now, you’re ready to work with PowerShell Jupyter Notebook.

Starting Jupyter Notebook

In Windows, you use any console application to start a Jupyter Notebook session using: DOS, Windows PowerShell, and even PowerShell 7 Preview. Have you to use the Anaconda menu shortcut has provided for running the Windows PowerShell prompt?

Better yet, check my instructions on how to create the “Anaconda Pwsh7 Preview Prompt” shortcut in my previous blog post “ANACONDA AND POWERSHELL WORKING TOGETHER!“.()

Back in Linux, open a bash terminal session.

Now, to start a .NET Interactive Jupyter Notebook session, at the console prompt type the following command:

jupyter lab

At this point, the Jupyter Notebook will open on your default browser (Windows or Linux).

The launcher will show all available components for creating notebook files.

Just pick the notebook kernel you wish to start working… let say “.NET PowerShell.”

Notice that I running the $PSVersionTable in the Notebook that the .NET PowerShell kernel is one release behind the latest update.

Now that I test that my .NET Notebook works, I can save my results for later use.

Please, if you encounter any issues with .NET Interactive/.NET Notebook, post them in their Github repo.

Wait! How can I get PowerShell 7 Preview RC 2 updated in .NET Interactive?

I did post the issue about why I was getting PowerShell 7 Preview RC 1 instead of RC2 and got the answer.

It looks like the initial build of .NET Interactive installation will install version ‘1.0.110801‘, which includes PowerShell 7 Preview RC1.

To get the latest build available with PowerShell 7 Preview RC 2, you need to run the update command:

## - To update tool - use PowerShell 7 Preview RC2
dotnet tool update -g --add-source "https://dotnet.myget.org/F/dotnet-try/api/v3/index.json" Microsoft.dotnet-interactive

Run the “jupyter lab” command again and run again the saved *.ipynb.

And that’s it!  As you can see, this command can get your .NET Interactive installation refreshed with the latest build.

Some exciting features are coming down the pipeline. Stay tuned for more!

Anaconda and PowerShell working together!

Yes! To my surprise, when I completed installing the latest update of Anaconda (Anaconda3 2019.10 (64bit) v4.8.1), I realized they have included the following menu item: “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt (Anaconda3)“. Apparently, this menu item has been added for some time.

So, we can take advantage of this shortcut, especially when we can use this console prompt for working with “PowerShell Notebook.” Please, check out Rob Sewell blog post on the recent update .NET Notebook Preview 2 post about “New .NET Notebooks are here – PowerShell 7 notebooks are here.“.

But, Wait! Let’s take this a little further and get you ready to do some fun.

What’s the main advantage?

The “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt” shortcut is already set to activate Anaconda to be used with Windows PowerShell. There’s no need to do a manual activation by opening a DOS command shell and executing:

c:\> conda activate

Trying to use Python without activating Anaconda, it will give you a message.

The activation will allow you to use Python within Windows PowerShell. Or, just use the shortcut “Anaconda PowerShell Prompt.”

As you probably will notice, this menu item only open Windows PowerShell. So, what about PowerShell Core?

This is probably because of PowerShell Core has multiple versions: PowerShell 6.2.4 (GA) and PowerShell 7 Preview (RC2), both supported by Microsoft.

Would you like to create the Anaconda Pwsh7 Prompt shortcut?

Yes! We can create our own PowerShell Core shortcut. And, here’s how to create the shortcut for Anaconda PowerShell 7 Preview.

First, I will make another copy of the original shortcut and label it “Anaconda Pwsh7-Preview Prompt (Anaconda3)“.

Here’s the original path use the Windows PowerShell shortcut:

%windir%\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -NoExit -Command "& 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\shell\condabin\conda-hook.ps1' ; conda activate 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3' "

And, here’s my shortcut modification to use PowerShell 7 Preview:

%ProgramFiles%\PowerShell\7-preview\pwsh.exe -ExecutionPolicy ByPass -NoExit -Command "& 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3\shell\condabin\conda-hook.ps1' ; conda activate 'C:\ProgramData\Anaconda3' "

Keep in mind, you will need administrator privileges to create this shortcut in the ProgramData Anaconda menu.

After making all the necessary changes to the new shortcut, we got both Window PowerShell and PowerShell 7 Preview working with Anaconda.

Now go ahead and expand your scripting knowledge!

My Truth with WSL 2 in Windows 10

I’ve seen many blog posts looking for specific information on setting up WSL 2 in Windows 10 and especially, on a virtual machine. But, I always end up a little short and figuring out by myself through trial-and-error.

Microsoft WSL 2 Installation documentation page is helpful for most part. But was meant for a physical installation. ()

Let me shared what I found and hope it serves you well.

My Experience

First, I love WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux)! It’s a great addition to Windows 10, and everyone should learn how to use it.

To get started, follow the instructions on how to get your WSL 1 Linux Distro installed. And, begin with installing Ubuntu 18.04.

Now, get Docker Desktop (), which can be installed in Windows 10 RTM Build 18363 with WSL 1. For the most part, you can start working with docker containers.

To use WSL 2 with Docker Tech Preview, you need Windows 10 Insider build 18917 (or higher). Execute the following command in either DOS or PowerShell console:

wsl -l -v

If it doesn’t work, then it means you still using WSL 1, and it can’t be set to WSL 2. This might be due to the OS is not a Windows Insider version. In WSL 1, the version ‘-v’ parameter is only available for Windows Insider OS.

Now, If it works, then you’ll get the following response:

prompt, use the following command to change from WSL 1 to WSL 2:

wsl --set-default-version Ubuntu-18.04 2

wsl -l -v

if you still can’t set the WSL distro to version 2, it means you’re not using Windows Insider build.

WSL 2 in Virtual Machine

You need to build a virtual machine with the latest Windows 10 Insider build. If you have tried the previous instructions and didn’t work, then to fix the issue run the PowerShell cmdlet on the Hyper-V host (outside the VM):

Set-VMProcessor -VMName [HyperV-VMName] -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $true

You can use the Get-VMProcessor cmdlet to verify the changes made to the property “ExposeVirtualizationExtensions.” In this case, should show the value change to “True” as shown below:

Get-VMProcessor -VMName [HyperV-VMName] | Format-List

Make sure the virtual machine is restart after making the changes.

What about setting up WSL 2 on an Azure virtual machine? WSL 2 can’t be set up in an Azure virtual machine. You don’t have access to the Azure parent Hyper-V host to use the Set-VMProcessor cmdlet.

Although the Set-VMProcessor cmdlet is not mentioned in the main WSL 2 installation page, you’ll find it hidden in the WSL 2 FAQ page ().

Remember, this cmdlet is very important if you want to set up WSL 2 on a virtual machine in your physical Hyper-V Host.

The Good Stuff – Docker Desktop WSL 2 Tech Preview

First, make sure all of the above settings are in place. This means that you were able to set WSL 2 as the “Default Version” on your favorite Linux Distro.

Open your favorite console, PowerShell, then verify WSL 2 is set by executing the following command:

wsl -l -v

Then, follow the instructions to install the Docker WSL 2 Tech Preview – “Docker Desktop WSL 2 backend“:

At the time of this post, the download Docker Desktop Edge version should be 2.1.7.0.

Note: If you’re on version 2.1.6.0, upgrading to 2.1.7.0, will fail to start. Ignore it! Then, proceed to “Install Update” to complete installation and reboot.

 

Configure Docker for WSL 2

Although Docker is running in the background, you still need to complete configuring Docker to work in WSL 2.

Continue to follow the instruction from the “Docker Desktop WSL 2 backend – Install” section, and you’re done.

Failure to properly configure Docker to WSL 2, you’ll get the following error:

Now, you can start building and working with Docker containers in WSL 2.

Have fun!